Contents

Installation

For installation instructions and help, click here.

Opening Files

Open a song by clicking File > Open and selecting an audio file and save location. Most common audio formats are supported, but files with DRM, such as m4p will not work. MIDI files can be opened in order to create sheet music, but all instruments will be played with piano.

You have the option to process only part of a song or skip finding notes and just generate a spectrogram display. You can also increase the frequency resolution and/or decrease the time step if you want a higher resolution image. A higher resolution image will take longer to generate, but doesn't affect the automatic note detection accuracy.

You can add additional songs to the file queue while the song is being processed by repeating the above steps. If you add songs one at a time, the open file dialog will pop up and you can adjust the settings. If you add multiple files at once, they will be transcribed using the default settings and saved to the "Default Save Folder" listed in File > Preferences. To cancel a song, click the red X next to it.

Be patient!
Be patient!

It can take several minutes to process one song. To reduce the wait time, process the song in parts (such as 0 to 30 seconds, then 30 to 60, etc.) or use a computer with more processor cores.

Editing Notes

Notes (black) and suggested notes (white). Right clicking will add or remove a note.
Notes (black) and suggested notes (white). Right clicking will add or remove a note.

Notes are black with a glowing border. You can add or remove notes by right clicking in the spectrogram display. Candidate notes (white) show where the detection algorithm was less sure of a note. Candidate notes are simply suggestions and will not show up in sheet music. To edit the note type or duration you must save a musicXML file and edit in a separate music notation program.

Other tools:

Editing Measures (Beats, Time/Key Signature, Tempo)

To switch between note and measure editing modes click the appropriate tab in the side panel or press number keys "1" and "2". In measure mode you can click and drag the beats (gray lines) and downbeats (blue lines) to align measures around notes. Downbeats represent the start of a measure. If you click on a downbeat, several actions are available in the side panel:

It's best to make the biggest changes first: edit time signatures, then the number of measures, the positions of downbeats, and finally the position of other beats within measures.

Playback

There are three playback buttons to play audio: music only, notes only, and music plus notes. A dropdown box allows you to select what section of the song to play. 'Selection' plays any region highlighted by clicking and dragging on the spectrogram or timeline. If no region has been selected, the audio visible in the window will be played. A single left click anywhere in the spectrogram clears the selection. 'Here to end' plays from the audio in the current window to the end of the song and 'Start to end' plays the whole song. The 'loop' checkbox (shortcut key 'l') repeats playback. The speed slider changes the tempo without changing pitch. Beneath that are the music and note volume controls.

Viewing Sheet Music

AnthemScore has a built-in viewer for sheet music. However, if you have a music notation program like Sibelius, Finale, MuseScore, LilyPond, etc. you can link this program in AnthemScore (File > Preferences) and the external program will be used instead to view sheet music. To use an external editor, select the "use external program" radio button and provide the path to the application (a .exe on Windows). The green sheet music button will save any edits you have made to the notes and open the sheet music. Sheet music is saved as a musicXML file in the default save folder listed in preferences, unless you specify a different path when opening the audio. You can also save the sheet music to a new location by clicking File > Save As. MusicXML is a common sheet music format supported by all major music notation programs.

Save Options

To see the options for saving files from AnthemScore, click File > Save as.

Format

Staffs

The staffs options allow you to move all notes to the treble or bass clef without changing their pitch. Any notes on or above the bass/treble split point will be written to the treble clef. All notes below that are written to the bass clef.

Smallest Allowed Note

The shortest note that will show up in sheet music. Setting this to a longer note will result in more notes being played together in sheet music, even if they start at slightly different times in the spectrogram.

Pitch Adjust

The pitch adjust options will shift the pitch of all notes up or down by a fixed number of semitones and/or octaves.

Custom Note Range

The custom note range lets you set the lowest and highest notes you want to see in your sheet music. When there is a note outside of this range, it will either be moved within the range by changing the octave or removed from the sheet music, depending on the option you select. If you play an instrument other than the piano, you may want to set this to the lowest and highest notes you can play on your instrument.

Save as Default

By checking save as default, you can apply these settings every time sheet music is generated.

Speed and Memory

By default, AnthemScore will use all available processor cores to speed up processing. You can reduce the number of worker threads spawned in File > Preferences. Using more threads also requires more memory, so keep an eye on memory usage by the program and decrease the number of threads if needed. Changing the number of threads will not affect any current or pending jobs, only files opened after the change. It's best to only have one instance of the program running at a time. Multiple instances of AnthemScore will slow each other down and may overwrite shared files.

Command Line Interface

You can call the program from the command line to process songs in the background (no GUI), and automatically save the musicXML file or spectrogram data. Use the -h or --help flags to see a list of options. Example basic use:

AnthemScore audio.mp3 -a -x output.xml

Contributing a File

Use the "Contribute File" button if you would like to submit a transcription after editing to help improve the future software accuracy. Please submit only after correcting all the mistakes: adding all missing notes and removing incorrect notes. The software uses machine learning to detect notes and the more examples it has of accurate, high quality transcriptions, the better the results. Songs where the automatic note detection was poor are particularly helpful (after they have been corrected). If you submit a file, both the song and notes will be uploaded, reviewed, and may become part of a training dataset. Any edits in an external sheet music editor will not be picked up, so please edit the notes within AnthemScore. Submissions are donations of data and cannot be retracted. See the software license agreement for legal information.

Understanding the Display

A spectrogram of the song will be displayed in the main window. A spectrogram is a color plot of the energy at different frequencies over time. By default, the horizontal axis is time and the vertical axis is frequency (log scale), but this can be changed in the view menu. The color shows the amplitude. Dark blue/black indicates low amplitude and red indicates high amplitude. If the "note lines" box is checked, horizontal lines are drawn at the boundaries between the 88 piano keys.

You can move the mouse over a line to see the name of the note and left click to listen to it. Check the mouse harmonic lines box to see the the harmonic frequencies. Those harmonic lines are the locations that you would expect to see a high amplitude if there was a note at the mouse cursor.

What are Harmonics?

Harmonics are equally spaced. They appear to grow closer together here because frequency is on a logarithmic scale.
Harmonics are equally spaced. They appear to grow closer together here because frequency is on a logarithmic scale.

When a note is played on an instrument, the air vibrates at multiple frequencies, called the harmonics of the note. The pitch of the note is the frequency of its first harmonic. For example, when you play C4, or middle C, on the piano, the piano string vibrates at the frequency of C4 (261.63 Hz). But it also simultaneously vibrates at multiples of that frequency: 523.26 Hz (C5), 784.89 Hz (G5), 1046.52 Hz (C6), etc. You only hear a single pitch because your brain recognizes that the frequencies are multiples of 261.63 Hz and groups them together. Usually the 1st harmonic is the strongest and each successive harmonic is weaker, but it can vary. For example, the clarinet has strong odd harmonics (1, 3, 5, 7, ...) and weak even harmonics (2, 4, 6, 8, ...).

The relative amplitude of the different harmonics is partly what gives different instruments their characteristic sound, or timbre. Sometimes the 1st harmonic may be missing entirely and the only way to identify the note is to look at the spacing between harmonics. It's also possible, and quite common, for two notes to played together where one note falls on a harmonic of another note (for example C4 and C5, which are an octave apart). When this happens, the higher note's harmonics will be hidden by the lower note, unless they stand out from having stronger amplitudes or small differences in timing.

Spotting Drums

Drums usually occur at lower frequencies and can be identified as features that are narrow in time and very wide in frequency. Percussion instruments often produce frequencies that are are not harmonic (not multiples of a fundamental frequency).

Repeating bass drum at low frequencies and drumstick clicks at high frequencies. Both are narrow in time and wide in frequency.
Repeating bass drum at low frequencies and drumstick clicks at high frequencies. Both are narrow in time and wide in frequency.

See a few examples of what music looks like.